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Russia's North: Economic Problems of Development

Date of publication: 2020-03-22 19:45:46
Дата модификации: 2020-03-22 19:45:46
Views: 107
The article is timed to the date: 1997-01-01
Other articles related to: Date1997-01-01 Articles for: Year1997
Author:


Introduction.
 
As the Russian national economy experienced cardinal transformations, the problems of development and function of the social and economic complexes in the North aggravated. This fact actualized the research of both general and more specific issues of the structural change in the regional economy and of the mechanism of interaction between the authorities at the federal and regional levels of government.
 
Researching the economy of Russia's North it shall be taken into account that this term is rather a geographical concept and it is not linked to any specific economic region. In fact, one of the methodological problems of the internal typology and classification of the Extreme North and the territories with equal status is that the administrative and territorial boundaries of the Russian Federation subjects and the social and economic zones of the regions in Russia's North do not coincide. This circumstance makes the obtaining of information for the research work more difficult as in practice Rosstatagentstvo (Russian Statistical Agency), the Ministry for Revenues, the Ministry for Economy, the Finance Ministry provide statistical data, normative documents and analytical materials classified by subjects of the Russian Federation.
 
The starting point of the study of Russia's North economy is the theoretical generalization and the detailed scientific elaboration of methodological approaches and methodological principles relevant to the concept of "North" and to the problems of typology, division into districts and zoning.
 
The general concept of "North" is defined as territories within certain physical and geographical parameters. The legal interpretation of the Extreme North areas and territories with the equal status in the Russia's economy was traditionally regulated by Decisions of the Russian Federation Government by the inclusion into a list of concrete territories. Russia's territories included into the Extreme North area in geographical terms are a band stretching latitude-wise from 82' (Rudolf Island) to 44' (the South Kurile Islands), so the term "the economy of Russia's North" is somewhat blurred. This interpretation of "North" differs from definitions generally accepted in the international practice.
 
While defining "North" as an area of people's economic activities, the principle moments are qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the totality of social, economic, national, ethnical, natural, and climatic factors and conditions. However, unfortunately even in this case the typology of territories in Russia's North basing on individual categories allows to describe only regional specifics while failing to detect typical general features.
 
As per Federal law No. 78-FZ of June 19, 1996, "On Principles of the State Regulation of Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation' North" the definition of "North" includes the part of the Russian Federation territory situated in high latitudes, which is characterized by severe natural and climatic conditions, and by higher costs of production and of satisfying the basic needs of the populace. After the law has been adopted the federal legislation regulates the drawing of boundaries of territories classified as areas in the Extreme North and of districts in the North. However, a Federal Law draft "On Division into Districts of the Russian Federation's North" has not been adopted yet.
 
In recent years Russian economists have rather lively discussed the issues of typology and division into districts of the economy in Russia's North. Domestic practices of the economic district demarcation by setting large economic areas does not correspond to new trends and processes in the management of territories in Russia's North. A comparative analysis of methodological approaches to the setting of district boundaries and the evaluation of economic activities in Northern regions, to specifics of the formation of social, labor, national, and ethnic relations, and to regulating mechanisms, will no doubt facilitate the comprehension of general and specific features of development. Generalization of international experiences from Scandinavian countries, Canada, and other states related to division into districts and zoning in Northern territories is of theoretical and practical importance when forming a concept and development strategies for Russia's North. On the other hand, an analysis of retrospective specifics of the economic development of Russia's North, and of practical results of restructuring the economy of Russia's North also has an international importance, since about 1/4 of the world populace of the Arctic zone lives in this region.
 
In terms of methodology the method of purpose-oriented division into districts, which was tested in practice while elaborating regional development programs for the Canada's North, is of interest. In the framework of this approach it is necessary to solve methodological problems of singling out Russia's North as a geo-social-economic region, which includes several political, administrative, physical, and geographical districts, which are characterized by unique common natural, climatic, social, and economic factors: remoteness from principal populated areas, development sites isolated from each other, resource-oriented economy, high capital intensity of production, underdeveloped system of services. Besides, an important role among these factors is played by the specifics of Russia's North development, which to a large extent are determined by the seasonal character of delivery of physical and technical resources, and of consumer goods, possible only in the period when river and sea transport is able to navigate.
 
A research into the geo-social-economic system of Russia's North will facilitate the determination of the role and importance of this region in terms of sectoral, territorial, and administrative development problems on the national scale. The practical importance of the results will be revealed as the principal guidelines for the improvement of the mechanism of coordination between the federal and regional levels of government on issues of the prospective development of the region will be determined. Among quantitative methods of analysis of structural shifts in the regional economy special attention shall be paid to the methods of analysis and of planning of regional and local economy rather widely practiced abroad and described in works by Blankery Ed., McLean M., Voytek K.
 
One of the main problems of Russia's North is the formation of the state investment policy concept and the elaboration of regional purpose-oriented investment programs. This fact determines the urgency of analysis and evaluation of the investment potential of Russia's North, as well as prospects of the regional and territorial development. According to the methods of expert appraisals the investment attractiveness shall be determined basing on the analysis of a combination of characteristics relevant to the productive, intellectual, and institutional potential, consumer demand, living standards, degree of the infrastructure development, and other factors. This shall help to range regions and to determine general and specific criteria of the territorial typology in the North across levels of investment attractiveness and investment risks.
 
The starting point in determining regional typologies according to the criteria of social and economic conditions and of the elaboration of regional programs is the structural analysis of the regional economy. This study is limited to the general analysis of the role the economy of Russia's North plays in the national economy, and to the description of the most general problems related to ensuring social security of the local population.
 
1. General Description of the Economy of Russia's North
 
Twenty seven RF subjects, or parts of them, belong to Russia's North. Territories in the Extreme North and those with equal status cover more than 60 per cent of the Russia's territory. There are 11.9 million people living in Russia's North, that is about 8 per cent of the total population in the country; 181 thousand of them belong to small Northern ethnic groups.
 
Russia's North is an industrially developed region. The share of the regions in Russia's North makes about 2/5 of the total GDP, 17 per cent of the total industrial output, almost 1/3 of fixed capital expenditures, as well as about 60 per cent of natural raw materials, and of fuel and energy resource exports. Extreme natural and climatic conditions restrain agricultural development; its share in the total produce in Russia is below 5 per cent. While describing the economy of Russia's North, it shall be taken into account that industrially developed areas often neighbor upon territories where small Northern ethnic groups reside compactly, and where traditional economy such as hunting, reindeer breeding, fishing, and crafts prevail. In connection to this it is of principal importance that industrial development of territories shall be accompanied by State programs for support of native Northern population, which, among other major problems, should deal with the environmental protection in areas where ethnic communities conduct their economic activities.
 
Mineral and Raw Material Base
As per Goskomstat estimates, up to 80 per cent of surveyed and predicted mineral resources, over 60 per cent of forest resources, and 90 per cent of fresh water resources are concentrated in Russia's North. Ninety seven per cent of the total natural gas, three fourth of oil, 90 per cent of tin, the major share of gold, diamonds, copper, nickel, 15 per cent of coal are extracted here; 20 per cent of the total electric power and all apatite concentrate are produced in Northern regions.
 
Northern regions are major areas where timber is logged and processed. Their share makes almost one half of the total timber production in Russia.
 
Over half of the fish and sea produce yield, as well as 40 per cent of canned fish products make the share of the Northern regions. See the rather convincing data in Table 1.
 
As concerns mineral and raw materials, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is ranked third among Russia's regions. The Murmansk Region is the monopolist as concerns the production of the apatite concentrate in Russia.
 
Reserves of gold, tin, wolfram, mercury, and other minerals in the Magadan Region determine its ranking (10th) among top 20 Russia's regions in terms of the aggregate reserves of mineral and raw material resources, as well as the character of its economic specialization.
 
High rankings of the Yamal-Nenets (1st) and Khanty-Mansi (2nd) Autonomous Districts are determined by colossal fossil fuel reserves. The Komi Republic's territory contains 1/2 of the total oil reserves and 1/3 of the total gas reserves in the North of the European part of Russia.
 
Commercial reserves of gold, tin, wolfram, mercury are situated within the Chukotka Autonomous District. The development of fossil fuel deposits in the Nenets and Evenk Autonomous Districts has been started.
 
While analyzing natural and raw material resources, huge reserves of timber and biological resources of the regions in Russia's North shall be taken into account.
 
In the Komi Republic the forested area and forestry growing stock make almost half of the mature forests in the European part of Russia's North. In the Republic of Sakha and in the Evenk Autonomous District more than 80 per cent of the territory are covered with larch taiga.
 
The unique nature of Kamchatka and large biological resources, spawning areas of salmon concentrated near the peninsula's coasts determine the specific formation of the economic structure in the region. For instance, commercial resources of Kamchatka crabs in the Koryak Autonomous District are of major importance in this regard.
 
Fur-hunting, which is a traditional occupation of the native ethnic groups of the North, is especially typical in taiga zones of the Evenk, Chukotka, and Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous Districts, and in the Republic of Sakha.
 
Structure of Industrial Output
The character of specialization of the regions in Russia's North is essentially determined by the natural and productive potential of a territory. A comparative analysis of Tables 2 and Table 1 reveals the specifics of specialization across individual regions. Extending the analysis by applying the method of regional coefficients provides an opportunity to evaluate export potentials and the degree of the regional economies' self-sufficiency. This is an especially prospective research direction, since in recent years insufficient attention has been paid to scientific and methodological elaboration of the territorial aspect in managing the real economy.
 
In the framework of the traditional system of the productive forces' localization within Russia's territory the regions in the Extreme North were oriented towards export of material and technical products to industrially developed regions in the European and Asian parts of the country, that having determined the domination of extracting industries. On the whole, the consumer market in these territories was formed by imports from other Russia's regions, since the production of consumer goods was unprofitable and accordingly was not developed.
 
Northern producers are in a more difficult situation. In the North industrial costs are by 20 to 30 per cent higher than sectoral averages due to a higher share of investment, material, and labor costs.
 
In the reform period in order to change the present situation enterprises shall aim at increasing effectiveness of major factors of production, and at implementing active policy of restructuring and diversification of their operations. However, the extremely slow adaptation of economic agents to shifts in economic conditions on commodity, capital, and labor markets, the absence of prospective investment strategies became the factors restraining the processes of reviving the economic growth. Besides, in the situation of the restructuring Russian economy the raw-material sectors in Russia's North became more dependent on levels and dynamics of tariffs on electric power and transportation. The level of transportation costs in the total production and marketing costs is a major problem for supplying products to the regions in the Extreme North, for the development of interregional relations, and foreign trade.
 
In recent years the share of extractive industries increased across practically all Northern regions, while branches of the investment complex and socially oriented industries experienced a sharp curtailment of production. On the one hand, it happened due to persistent higher resource- intensity of the domestic production, on the other hand, due to the trend towards intensive growth of exports of natural gas, fuel resources, and products of their initial processing. In this situation a considerable increase in the rate of the foreign trade turnover was a factor restraining the rate of the economic slump in Russia's North.
 
Export Potential of Russia's North
The export-oriented production in Russia's Northern regions is based on industries of fuel and energy, metallurgy, and forestry complexes, as well as on fish industry. The share of the Northern Regions in the total Russian exports is increasing at a rather stable rate; in 1997 it made 13.3 per cent of the total exports (almost 18.8 per cent without exports to CIS). Export volumes across individual regions of Russia's North see in Table 3.
 
It shall be noted that as Russia integrates into the world economy fluctuations of foreign markets increasingly influence the dynamics and structure of regional economies. Unfavorable prices of natural and raw resources had a negative impact on the financial situation of enterprises and local budgets in Russia's North in 1998.
 
The dynamics and structure of exports differ substantially across individual regions and depend on fluctuations on the world market.
 
Exports from the Murmansk Region make almost 57 per cent of the total industrial output in the Region, and consist mostly of chemical and non-ferrous products.
 
The Magadan Region's major exports consist of fish, sea products, and products of the fish industry, which make 69.8 per cent of the total regional exports, and of ferrous and non-ferrous metals (16.5 per cent). As concerns the geographical structure of exports, the largest share of products is exported to Japan (43 per cent), the Republic of Korea (21 per cent), the USA (10 per cent).
 
The foreign trade turnover of the Magadan Region grows rather steady due to increasing share of imports. As tariffs on transportation grow and due to instability of supply, domestic and foreign importers expand their activities. The major imports of the Magadan Region are products of engineering industry (50 per cent), foodstuffs (26 per cent), products of the fuel and energy complex (12 per cent).
 
Oil and gas extracting regions keep their dominating role in the export potential of Russia's North. More active foreign trade and a steady growth of export surplus allows these territories to settle their production and social problems in complex. The share of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District makes over half of the total exports of Russia's North. The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District exports made $ 5.4 billion in 1997. It shall be noted that as new oil deposits are developed in the Sakhalin Region, in the Nenets Autonomous District, and in the Republic of Komi, the foreign trade turnover in this regions grows and their importance in the exports structure of Russia's North increases.
 
In 1995 through 1996, and in 1999, due to favorable conditions on international markets enterprises of the forestry complex of the Karel and Komi Republics, and in the Arkhangelsk Region kept rather stable positions on external markets. Territories of these regions are major exporters of timber and forestry products to the West European market. Active policy aimed at the improving of technologies, expansion of assortment of final products, attraction of foreign investors allow the enterprises of timber, wood-working, wood pulp and paper industries of Russia's North to keep and expand their sales markets.
 
The Norilsk Industrial District plays a special role in the economy of Russia's North. RAO "Norilsk Nickel" is a largest integrated metal mining and metallurgy company. The company owns ore deposits, which are among largest in the world (35 per cent of the world nickel resources). "Norilsk Nickel" produces 20 per cent of the world nickel output and 42 per cent of the platinum group metals output. The company's share in the mineral resources makes: nickel - 90 per cent, cobalt - 77 per cent, copper - 66 per cent. While the trend towards the shrinking of domestic effective demand persists, the dynamics of production are mainly determined by an accelerated increase in export volumes of non-ferrous metals. "Norilsk Nickel" sells up to 30 per cent of the output on the domestic market, and 70 per cent - on foreign markets. As operations on foreign markets become more active, the production dynamics increasingly depend on price fluctuations on the world market.
 
In this case the study is limited to the description of trends in development of the economy and foreign trade of Russia's North. The further research may be aimed at quantitative evaluation of regional specialization and its development prospects from the standpoint of international economic factors and of the role Northern regions play in the international economy of the Arctic zone.
 
Investment Activity
The crisis of the Russian economy is accompanied by a sharp downfall in the scope of investment expenditure, and by shifts in their structure across sectors, territories, and reproduction aspects. It shall be noted that in recent years in spite of the difficult financial situation of the country, the share of investment expenditure for the development of Russia's North has been maintained at 18 to 20 per cent of the total amount of investment into the Russian economy.
 
Not so pronounced decrease in investment into the development of Russia's North is determined by specific features in the formation of the sectoral make-up of production and by the role individual regions play in the national economy. The share of intensively developing areas, where hydrocarbon raw materials are extracted in the Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Districts, makes more than 10 per cent of the total investment into fixed capital in the Russian economy at large. In terms of investment oil and gas fields of Russia's North have high investment attractiveness.
 
In an attempt to settle a very difficult and general problem of investment deficit each Northern region seeks instruments, which would be most adequate to its specifics. For instance, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District has established a special investment fund, which implements local and regional development programs.
 
A typical feature of Russia's North is the fact that in most cases large industrial enterprises are the centers, around which towns were built, and as the only source of income for the town population they traditionally implement social programs. For instance, "Norilsk Nickel" provides the population not only in the Norilsk Industrial District, but in Yenisei North at large, that is the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous District.
 
As economic conditions change, increasing unproductive expenses become a heavier burden on these "town-forming" enterprises. Taking into account the mounting social tension in the regions of Russia's North and the importance of a majority of social programs for the populace in the situation when it is impossible to transfer the financing of these programs to local governments, the "town-forming" enterprises take investment decisions and work out production restructuring and employment strategies very carefully.
 
In order to maintain "town-forming" enterprises and to facilitate the survival of such towns, the Murmansk regional administration has signed cooperation agreements on ensuring the stabilization of their social and economic situation with a number of leading enterprises.
 
The share of budgetary investment into the economy has dropped systematically in all recent years. However, in such traditionally depressed regions as the Republic of Tuva, Chukotka and Koryak Autonomous Districts, the major part of investment into fixed capital is still financed from the federal budget. In leading regions business activity is maintained due to increasing role and importance of non-governmental sources of investment financing, including both Russian and foreign capital.
 
In terms of mineral and raw material resources Russia's North is an investment-attractive region. In recent years regions, where export-oriented extracting industries were highly developed, were in the most favorable situation.
 
Increasing demand for products of timber industry on domestic and international markets was the factor restraining the downfall of investment in fixed capital in the Komi and Karel Republics, as well as in the Arkhangelsk Region, which produces almost 40 per cent of Russia's wood pulp and paper products.
 
As the market of non-ferrous metals changed and exports grew intensively, a slowdown in the decrease of investment was noted in the Murmansk, Magadan, Chukotka Regions, and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), alongside with an increase in investment attractiveness of these regions.
 
Experts of the Department for structural and innovation policies of the RF Economy Ministry point to the fact that foreign investment depend more on levels of investment risks, while domestic investment follow the investment potential. However, in spite of persistent high risks and unfavorable investment climate the amount of foreign investment in the economy of the North has demonstrated a trend towards growth. See the data in Table 4.
 
The regional investment climate is the most general criterion for the evaluation of development prospects as it takes into account the totality of economic, social, political, legal and cultural conditions making a region commercially attractive. Underdeveloped infrastructure is a common feature of the surveyed territories of Russia's North. As a rule, these regions are situated in remote areas with difficult terrain, while the transportation networks are practically non-existent because of the natural and weather conditions; therefore air and water transport play the major role. The informational communications network has been developing intensively; however, due to the fact that it still lags below the national level, it is still a factor limiting the investment attractiveness of Russia's North.
 
On the whole, taking into account the unique mineral, raw material, natural, and biological resources, the level of productive, economic, and investment potential there is no alternative to the continuation of developing the North from the standpoint of interests and development prospects of the national economy. Actually, this circumstance determines the potential investment attractiveness of Russia's North; however, the practical settlement of the problem of favorable investment climate and of intensification of business activities depends on improvement of the normative and legal basis.
 
2. Demographics and Employment
 
The second set of problems, which are of paramount importance for the regions of Russia's North is related to regulatory mechanisms in the area of labor resources and the populace's social security.
 
The territory of Russia's North is sparsely populated; the major part of the populace concentrates around "town-forming" enterprises and along transport routes. Intensive development of industries and construction in the territories of Russia's North has brought about an increase in the share of urban population. On the whole, the share of urban dwellers in the total populace is ranked among the largest in the country. It shall be noted that in autonomous districts and in the areas where small Northern ethnic groups reside compactly due to maintained national, cultural, and economic traditions rural population prevails.
 
Due to the economic slump an increasing share of surplus populace is typical for all Northern regions. While annual migration turnover in the Northern territories was over two million people, and was of stable positive nature in the eighties, in seven last years the trend has changed dramatically. In 1990 through 1998, an outflow of populace at over 10 per cent was registered in the Kamchatka Region, Nenets Autonomous District, Murmansk Region, Taimyr Autonomous District. In some regions of the Far East outflows reached 40 per cent (the Chukotka and Koryak Autonomous Districts). As per Goskomstat estimates only 10 per cent of migrants to major populated areas and to Southern regions were eligible for the governmental housing program. See Graph 1.
 
Spontaneous migration was more characteristic of the most able-bodied and active part of the populace, who had better chance for employment in other regions. Unregulated migration processes are a factor negatively affecting processes of restructuring and diversification of production in some territories. The migration is substantially influenced by changes in the demographic structure; in particular by the fast increase in the share of the retired, especially in the North of Russia's European part. Increasing share of populace at unemployable age leads to faster growth of social burden on federal and local budgets against the background of shrinking revenue base of budgets at all levels.
 
Specifics of the labor market in the North are related to the features of the placement and development of productive forces. A considerable number of jobs is directly or indirectly connected with the extractive sector of the economy and industries for initial processing of fossil and natural raw materials. Since the majority of enterprises are "town-forming" ones, the problems of local unemployment aggravated in the situation of the economic slump.
 
A most acute problem causing higher social tension in regions of Russia's North is the process of restructuring of the coal extracting industry, enterprises in engineering and some other industries, closures of unprofitable "town-forming" enterprises. Absent internal funds at enterprises and limited local budgets cause failures to keep social guarantees for the populace and maintain the infrastructure of public utilities and services in Northern towns.
 
Tensions on labor markets are aggravated by the fact that the remoteness of the Northern regions from major populated areas and increasing transportation tariffs cut many residents off interregional markets. Total and registered levels of unemployment in the regions of Russia's North are much higher than the national average.
 
The economy of Russia's North has traditionally enjoyed a higher level of federal aid and an expanded system of benefits and social guarantees for those working in the economy of the Northern territories. In the period of reform the amount and structure of governmental welfare and investment expenditure, as well as the financing of deliveries to the regions of the Extreme North shrunk considerably. In the regions of Russia's North the structural reform is considerably hindered by a special status of regional governments allowing them to receive governmental subsidies, soft credits, import subsidies, some capital and essential consumer goods at low price levels, and other non-market financial transfers.
 
In regions of Russia's North the implementation of traditional state policy in social and labor relations basing on laws adopted at the time administrative and command methods prevailed has lost its regulatory functions, new concepts and mechanisms are at the stage of elaboration.
 
Currently, the concept of forming labor resources in Russia's North is basing on a combination of state regulation methods as concerns employment processes and social guarantees to employees of state-owned enterprises and organizations on the one hand; on the other hand, a mechanism ensuring an increased responsibility of non-state employers in issues of inviting workers to Northern regions and providing social guarantees for them is in the process of elaboration.
 
The concept of the state regional policy of the development of Russia's North shall be elaborated on the basis of strict power-sharing arrangements between federal and territorial authorities, as well as a regulatory mechanism for inter-budgetary relations. This will ensure necessary flexibility and dynamism while meeting social security standards, and taking into account local specifics. The settlement of these problems depends on the improvement of both budgetary and labor legislation.
 
***
 
A preliminary study of the situation Russia's North is in reveals that specifics of the territorial economic development and of the functioning of regions in the structure of the national economy demand: (1) improve legislation, normative and legal base; (2) elaborate methods of analysis and of evaluating regional development prospects, and (3) form a regulation mechanism and a set of state regulatory instruments. There is no doubt that adoption of experience accumulated in other countries in matters of regional studies and elaboration of purpose-oriented governmental programs will promote not only understanding of general problems of social and economic development in the Arctic zone, but also will be of use while elaborating the development strategy for Russia's North.

Mineral and Raw Material Resources Across Regions, in % of Total in Kind.

 

 

Mineral and Raw Material Resources

Hydrocarbon Raw Materials

 

% of total Russia's resources

Ranking

% of total Russia's resources

Ranking

Russian Federation, total

100,0

 

100,0

 

Across regions:

 

 

 

 

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

8,64

3

1,57

6

Murmansk Region

2,71

9

2,45

5

Magadan Region

2,64

10

 

 

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District

2,17

12

44,85

1

Arkhangelsk Region

1,89

15

0,71

14

Nenets Autonomous District

 

 

1,25

8

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District

1,45

19

30,52

2

Republic of Komi

1,36

20

1,19

10

Taimyr Autonomous District

   

0,35

19

 

Source: Goskomsever

 

Table 2

Structure of Industrial Output (in % of total)

 

 

Indus-try, total

% of total:

 

Electric power

Fuel

Non-ferrous metal-lurgy

Engineering and metal fabricating

Timber, woodworking, wood-pulp and paper

Light

Food-processing

Russian Federation, total

100,0

17,1

17,4

5,5

18,8

3,7

1,8

12,4

Republic of Karelia

100,0

18,3

 

4,4

8,5

35,7

0,5

10,5

Republic of Komi

100,0

18,6

53,8

 

2,8

14,2

1,4

4,2

Arkhangelsk Region

100,0

19,3

11,5

 

12,7

39,9

0,7

10,0

Nenets Autonomous District

100,0

1,8

93,3

 

 

 

0,4

3,5

Murmansk Region

100,0

24,0

 

36,0

6,1

4,9

0,3

13,3

Tumen Region

100,0

10,6

81,9

 

1,8

0,7

0,2

1,8

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District

100,0

12,6

84,4

 

0,9

0,5

 

0,6

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District

100,0

0,7

96,4

 

0,4

0,2

0,1

0,9

Republic of Tyva

100,0

29,1

18,4

12,0

2,5

2,3

1,7

18,8

Krasnoyarsk Area

100,0

13,1

8,6

43,7

5,9

5,6

0,8

7,4

Taimyr Autonomous District

100,0

8,4

22,8

 

 

0,3

5,0

54,0

Evenk Autonomous District

100,0

23,4

5,5

 

 

11,7

 

15,0

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

100,0

14,6

17,4

52,1

1,7

1,3

0,6

6,9

Chukotka Autonomous District

100,0

40,0

14,5

41,3

 

 

 

3,2

Kamchatka Region

100,0

31,5

 

 

 

 

 

45,4

Koryak Autonomous District

100,0

20,2

2,2

19,1

 

 

 

55,8

Magadan Region

100,0

43,4

3,1

40,4

 

 

 

7,1

Sakhalin Region

1000

21,7

34,7

 

 

7,1

 

41,9

 

Source: Goskomstat

 

Table 3

Exports Across Territories of Russia's North ($. Mio.)

 

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

Republic of Karelia

136,8

563,2

647

520,4

Republic of Komi

118,4

329,3

602

753,9

Arkhangelsk Region

180,5

672,5

422

694,1

Nenets Autonomous District

 

 

235

225

Murmansk Region

224,6

714,96

1158

1261,3

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District

846,6

2512,9

5202

5446

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District

 

354,1

36

12

Republic of Tyva

 

 

2

0,2

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

59,4

788,5

244

208

Kamchatka Region

111

288,8

483,2

321

Magadan Region

4,2

25,6

41

19,3

Sakhalin Region

108,9

330,9

553

336,5

Norilsk Industrial District

765,5

1103,5

1191,9

2306,3

 

Source: Goskomstat

Table 4

Foreign Investment ($ Mio.)

 

 

1995

1996

1997

1998

Russia total

2983

6970

12295

11773

Including territories of Russia's North

256,4

547,3

387

819,8

Republic of Karelia

19,6

2,4

4,2

5,1

Republic of Komi

34,6

61,5

31,1

218,1

Arkhangelsk Region

3,3

14,9

16,4

22,8

Murmansk Region

3,1

3,1

3,1

9,6

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District

46,8

122,2

130,4

106,6

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District

47,8

117,1

38,1

28,2

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

11,5

7,8

14,1

196,7

Kamchatka Region

24,4

24,4

34

42,9

Magadan Region

13,8

149,3

62,9

53,7

Sakhalin Region

51,5

44,6

52,7

136,1

 

Source: Rosstatagentstvo

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Bibliography

  1. Agrant G. A. Ispol'zovaniye resursov v osvoyenii territorii zarubezhnogo Severa (Resource Utilization in Developing Territories of Foreign North). M., Nauka, 1979.
  2. Luzgin G. P., Lazarev E. E., Selin V. S., Shirokova L. N., Metodologia raionirovaniya territoriy dlya upravleniya formirovaniyem trudovykh resursov v severnykh regionakh (District Demarcation Methods as Applied to Managing Formation of Labor Resources in Northern Regions). Apatity, 1996.
  3. Prokhorov B. B., Mediko-geograficheskaya informatsiya pri osvoyenii novykh raionov Sibiri (Medical and Geographical Information by Development of New Areas in Siberia). Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1979.
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  8. Regiony Rossii: statisticheskiy sbornik (Regions of Russia: Statistical Collection). Goskomstat Rossii, M., 1998
  9. Naseleniye Rossii za 100 let (1898 - 1997) (Russia's Population in 100 years (1898 - 1997). Goskomstat Rossii, M., 1998
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  11. Masters S., Garfinkel I. Estimating the Labor Supply Effects of Income-Maintenance Alternatives, Academic Press., N.y., 1977.
  12. Blakery Ed., Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice. SAGE Publication, 1994
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Article description: As the Russian national economy experienced cardinal transformations, the problems of development and function of the social and economic complexes in the North aggravated.

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